Treatment of Upstream Oil & Gas Wastewaters Prior to Disposal into a Class IID Well – Marcellus & Utica Shale Play

In the upstream oil & gas sector, wastewater is generated during the drilling, completion and production of conventional and non-conventional gas and oil wells. Throughout operations, there are methods for managing the wastewaters, which typically include recycle/reuse, evaporation/crystallization, and/or disposal into a Class IID disposal well. These wastewater streams from the different phases in the life of the well contain varying amounts of suspended solids and parameters of concern that need to be adequately managed to avoid excessive solids management costs, concentration of normally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) or technologically-enhanced normally occurring radioactive material (TENORM), and reduction of capacity in the formation in which the wastewaters are disposed.  Typical management methods include chemical addition and optimization of the facility design for suspended solids removal, both of which are discussed through case studies in this paper and PowerPoint presented at the 2016 International Water Conference.